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《英语语言学》教学大纲

课程名称:英语语言学

英文名称: English Linguistics

课程性质:英语专业本科生必修课

学分课时:2学分,36学时

主讲教师:朱跃教授、詹全旺教授、张明教授、胡健博士、张红霞博士、杨玲博士等

考核方式:

  本课程为考试课程,实行平时成绩和期末成绩相结合的考核办法。

  作业按教师要求每学期4次;期末考试闭卷考试,笔试。

试题形式:具体内容的判定;术语的界定与区分;运用基本知识分析语言事实。

参考题型:1、词语解释;2、填空题;3、多项选择题;4、正误判断;5、简答题;6、简述题

成绩评定:平时成绩(包括出勤、作业、课堂表现)占40%,期末成绩(卷面、读书笔记)60%

课程简介:

  《英语语言学》是一门由理论引导实践的课程,旨在介绍语言起源及内部各层次;讲授语言在时空中的变异及其与思维、文化、社会、语境、文学等外部因素的关系,并讨论语言学与教学的关系和当代语言学中的重要流派。课程内容涉及语音学、音位学、形态学、句法学、语用学、语义学、以及一些交叉学科如:心理语言学、社会语言学、应用语言学、文体学等。本课程通过系统介绍语言学的基本理论,在语言实践中培养学生用科学的方法分析语言事实和语言现象。

教学目的:

  主要以英语为例,全面地向学生介绍语言学的基础知识,从而使学生系统地了解语言(特别是英语)的语音、文字、词汇、语法、语义等主要方面,把握语言与语境、语言与文化、语言与文学、语言与教学等各种关系,并提高对语言的重要性的认识。

教学手段:

  课堂讲授,幻灯辅助教学。教学中采用教师为主导,学生为主体的教学模式,注重培养学生的系统思维能力和实际解决问题的能力。采用启发式,讨论式,发现式和研究式的教学方法,充分调动学生的积极性,发挥学生的能动性和创造性。

教学要求:

  通过本课程的教学,要求学生基本掌握语言学及其分支学科的基本观点、理论和方法,不仅了解语音学、音系学、词法学、句法学、语义学、语用学等核心分支的内容,而且还要熟悉社会语言学、心理语言学及语言与文化、文字、计算机及外语教学的关系,形成对语言和语言学的系统认识。

教学进程安排表:

周次 学时数 教 学 主 要 内 容 教学环节 备注
1 2 Chapter I Introduction (I) 讲授  
2 2 Chapter I Introduction (II) 讲授  
3 2 Chapter II Speech Sounds (I) 讲授  
4 2 Chapter II Speech Sounds(II) 讲授  
5 2 Chapter III Morphology 讲授  
6 2 Chapter III Syntax (I) 讲授  
7 2 Chapter IV Syntax (II) 讲授  
8 2 Chapter V Semantics (I) 讲授  
9 2 Chapter V Semantics (II) 讲授  
10 2 Chapter V Semantics (III) 讲授  
11 2 Chapter VI Pragmatics (I) 讲授  
12 2 Chapter VI Pragmatics (II) 讲授  
13 2 Chapter VI Pragmatics (III) 讲授  
14 2 Chapter VII Language Change 讲授  
15 2 Chapter VIII Language and Society (I) 讲授  
16 2 Chapter VIII Language and Society (II) 讲授  
17 2 Chapter IX Language Acquisition(I) 讲授  
18 2 Chapter IX Language Acquisition(II) 讲授  

教学内容:

Chapter 1 Introduction to Linguistics

Teaching aims: let the students have the general idea about language and linguistics.

Teaching difficulties: design features of language ; some important distinctions in linguistics

Teaching procedures:

1. Language

1.1 What is language

1.2 Design features of language

1.3 Functions of language

2. Linguistics

2.1 What is linguistics

2.2 Main branches (scope) of linguistics

2.2.1 phonetics

2.2.2 phonology

2.2.3 morphology

2.2.4 syntax

2.2.5 semantics

2.2.6 pragmatics

3. Important distinctions in linguistics

3.1 Descriptive vs. prescriptive

3.2 Synchronic vs. diachronic

3.3 Langue & parole

3.4 Competence and performance

3.5 Traditional grammar and modern linguistics

Further reading

[1]Read“A New Concise Course On Linguistics For Students Of English”

Chapter 2 Speech Sounds

Teaching aims: Let the students have the general idea about phonetics and phonology.

Focal points: description of consonants and vowels; basic knowledge about phonology

Teaching difficulties: phoneme; allophone; minimal pair; complementary distribution

Teaching procedure:

1. Phonetics

1.1 Speech production and perception

1.2 Speech organs (vocal organs)

1.2.1 The pharyngeal cavity

1.2.2 The oral cavity

1.2.3 The nasal cavity

1.3 phonetic transcription

1.3.1 Broad transcription

1.3.2 Narrow transcription

1.4 English speech sounds

Consonants: Parameters to identify a consonant:

①place of articulation: place in the mouth where obstruction occurs

②manners of articulation: ways in which articulation can be accomplished

③state of vocal cords: voiced VS. voiceless

Vowels: Criteria (parameters) of vowel description

①the position of highest part of the tinge :front, central, back

②the height of tongue raising: high, middle, low

③the shape of the lips (the degree of lip-rounding ) : rounded, unrounded

④the length or tenseness of the vowel : tense vs. lax or long vs. short

2. phonology

2.1 phonology and phonetics

2.2 Phones, phonemes, allophones

phones: They are the speech sounds we use when speaking a language. It’s a phonetic unit or segment (any linguistic unit which can be isolated from the rest). Phones do not necessarily distinguish meaning. Usually phones of different phonemes distinguish meaning.

phoneme: It is an abstract unit that is of distinctive value. It’s a basic unit in phonological analysis. It is not any particular sound, but rather it’s represented or realized by a certain phone in a certain phonetic context.

allophones: The different phones which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environments are called the allophones of that phoneme

distinctive features: The features that a phoneme possesses, making it different from other phonemes, are its distinctive features.

2.3 The phoneme theory

2.3.1 Minimal pairs

2.3.2 Complementary distribution

2.3.3 Free variation

Further reading

[1]Read “Modern Linguistics” by He Zhao-xiong

Chapter 3 Morphology

Teaching aims: Let the students have a brief knowledge about morphemes and the basic word-formation methods

Focal points: definition and classification of morphemes; major word-formation methods

Teaching procedure:

1. Word

1.1 lexicon

1.2 vocabulary

1.3 Definition of “word”

1.4 Classification of word

2. Morpheme

2.1 Free morpheme:

2.2 Bound morpheme:

3. Word formation

3.1 Compounding

3.2 Derivation

3.3 Blending

3.4 Clipping

3.5 Shortening or abbreviation

3.6 Initialism

3.7 Acronym

3.8 Back-formation

3.9 Borrowing

Further reading

[1]Adams,V. 1973, An Introduction to Modern English Word-Formation

[2]Hu Zhuanglin,2001A Course On Linguistics

Chapter 4 Syntax

Teaching aims: enable the students to understand and describe the internal structures of sentences

Focal points: different treatment of sentence structure by different linguistic schools

Teaching difficulties: IC analysis, deep structure, surface structure, tree diagram

Teaching procedure:

1. The traditional approach

2. The structural approach

2.1 Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations

2.2 Immediate constituent analysis (IC analysis)

3. The generative approach

3.1 Deep and surface structures

3.2 PS-rules and T-rules

Further reading

[1]Chomsky, N. ,1957,Syntactic Structures

[2]He Zhao-xiong ,1999 ,Modern Linguistics

Chapter 5 Meaning

Teaching aims: enable the students to have a better understanding of semantics and wording meaning.

Focal points: Leech’s seven classifications of meaning, semantic triangle, sense relations between words and sentences

Teaching difficulties: sense relations between sentences, different types of antonymy

Teaching procedure:

1. What’s semantics

1.1 Definition

1.2 A short history

2. What’s meaning (Meanings of “meaning”) P158

2.1 Denotation

2.2 Connotation: some additional, esp. emotive meaning.

2.3 Some views concerning the study of meaning

2.3.1 Naming theory

2.3.2 Conceptualism

2.3.3 Contextualism

2.3.4 Behaviorism

3. Sense & reference

3.1 Sense

3.2 Reference

4. Sense relations between words

4.1 synonymy

4.2 Antonymy

4.2.1 Gradable antonymy (mainly adj.)

4.2.2 Complementary antonymy

4.2.3 Converse antonymy (relational opposites)

4.3 Hyponymy

5. Sense relations between sentences

5.1 A entails B ( A is an entailment of B )

5.2 Presupposition (A presupposes B)

5.3 A is inconsistent with B

5.4 A is synonymous with B

5.5 A is a contradiction

5.6 A is semantically anomalous

6. Componential analysis

6.1 Basic principles of componetial analysis

6.2 Advantages:

6.3 Disadvantages

7. Sentence meaning

Further reading

[1]Read Chapter 5 Semanticsin “ Modern Linguistics” by He Zhao-xiong

Chapter 6 Pragmatics

Teaching aims: enable the students to have a better understanding of pragmatics and its two important theories.

Focal points: Speech act theory, the theory of conversational implicature

Teaching difficulties: Speech act theory, the cooperative principle and its four maxims

Teaching procedure:

1. An introduction to pragmatics

1.1 Sentence meaning vs. utterance meaning

1.2 Pragmatics

2. Speech act theory

2.1 Performatives and constatives

2.2 A theory of the illocutionary act

2.3 Searle’s classification of speech acts

2.3.1 Representatives

2.3.2 Directives

2.3.3 Commisives

2.3.4 Expressives

2.3.5 Declarations

3. The theory of conversational implicature

3.1 The co-operative principle (CP )

3.2 The four maxims

3.2.1 Quality maxim

3.2.2 Quantity maxim

3.2.3 Relation maxim

3.2.4 Manner maxim

3.3 Violation of the maxims and implicature

3.4 Characteristics of implicature

4. The politeness principle (PP)

Further reading

[1]Leech, G. N. ,1983,Principles ofPragmatics.London: Longman

[2]Dai Wei-dong ,2002,A New Concise Course on Linguistics for Students of English

[3]何自然,1995,语用学与英语学习

Chapter 7 Language Change

Teaching aims: enable the students to have a general understanding of changes of language

Focal points: nature of language changes, changes of English language, causes of language change

Teaching difficulties: Causes of language change, historical development of English, language family

Teaching procedure:

1. The purpose and significance of the historical study of Language

2. The nature of language change

3. The historical development of English

3.1 Major periods in the history of English

3.1.1 Old English

3.1.2 Middle English

3.1.3 Modern English

3. 2 Linguistic changes of English

3.2.1 Sound change

3.2.1 1 Vowel sound change

3.2.1.2 Sound loss

3.2.1.3 Sound addition

3.2.1.4 Sound movement

3.2.2 Morphological change

3.2.3 Syntactic change

3.2.3.1 Rule loss

3.2.3.2 Rule addition

3.2.3.3 Rule change

3. 2. 4 Lexical change

3.2.4.1 Lexical loss

3.2.4.2 Lexical addition

3.2.5 Semantic change

3.2.5.1 Semantic broadening

3.2.5.2 Semantic narrowing

3.2.5.3 Semantic shift

4. The causes of language change

4. 1 Sound assimilation

4. 2 Rule simplification and regularization

4. 3 Internal borrowing

4. 4 Elaboration

4. 5 Sociological triggers

4. 6 Cultural transmission

4. 7 Children’s approximation toward the adult grammar

Further reading

[1]赵世开,美国语言学简史

[2]陆国强,现代英语词汇学

Chapter 8 Language and Society

Teaching difficulties: Differences between bilingualism and diaglosia, differences between pidgin and creole, social variation

Teaching procedure:

1. The relatedness between language and society

2. Speech community

3. Speech varieties

     3.1 Regional variation

     3.2 Social variation

     3.2.1 Social class dialect

     3.2.2 Genderlect

     3.2.3 Age dialect

     3.2.4 Ethnic dialect

     3.3 Register

 4. Standard and nonstandard languages

      4.1 Standard language

      4.2 Non-standard languages

      4.2.1 Pidgins

      4.2.2 Creoles

      4.2.3 Lingua francas

 5. Diglossia and bilingualism

    5.1 Diglossia

    5.2 Bilingualism

[1]祝畹瑾,1992 ,社会语言学概论

[2]朱跃,1999,英语与社会

Chapter 9 Language Acquisition

Teaching aims: 1) enable the students to understand the basic distinctions between learning and acquisition, language transfer, the influence of linguistic input on second language acquisition, the effect of individual factors on SLA.

2) enable the students to understand language testing assessment

Focal points: Learning vs acquisition;positive transfer vs negative transfer; roles of linguistic input and formal classroom education in SLA; learner factors; assessment criteria

Teaching difficulties: Transfer; the influence of individual learner factors on SLA; assessment criteria

Teaching procedure:

1. Second Language Acquisition

l.1 Acquisition vs. learning

1.2 Transfer and interference

1.3 The roles of input and formal instruction in SLA

1.4 Individual learner factors

2. Language testing assessment

2.1 Grading rubrics

2.2 Common scales of DWA

2.3 Assessment criteria: Basic functions

Further reading 主要参考书目

[1]Akmajian,A. Demers, R. A.Farmer,A. K. & Harnish,R. M. An Introduction to Language and Communication[M], Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press,1995

[2]Atkinson, M. Kilby, D. & Roca,I. Foundations of General Linguistics[M],London: Unwin Hyman,1988

[3]Brown,H. D. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching[M],Prentice Hall Regents,1987

[4]Gee,J. P. An Introduction to Human Language---Fundamental Concepts in Linguistics[M],New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1993

[5]Harley,T. The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory[M],East Susex,1995

[6]Hartley,A. F. Linguistics for Language Learners[M], Kent: Multiplex Techniques Ltd,1982

[7]Napoli,D. J. Linguistics[M],New York: Oxford University,1996

[8]Sampson,G. Schools of Linguistics: Competition and Evolution[M],London: Hutchinson,1980

[9]戴炜栋,现代英语语言学概论[M],上海,上海外语教育出版社,1998

[10]何兆熊、梅德明,现代语言学[M],北京,外语教学与研究出版社,1999

[11]胡壮麟,语言学教程(修订版)[M],北京,北京大学出版社,2001

[12]胡壮麟、刘润清、李延福,语言学教程[M],北京,北京大学出版社,1989

[13]李宇明等,理论语言学教程[M],武汉,华中师范大学出版社,1998

[14]刘润清,西方语言学流派[M], 北京,外语教学与研究出版社,1995

[15]赵世开,美国语言学简史[M],上海,上海外语教育出版社,1989

[16]祝畹瑾,社会语言学概论[M],长沙,湖南教育出版社,1992

[17]朱跃, 英语与社会[M],合肥,安徽大学出版社,1999